Do you have the same question about how matter and energy will last?

The answers will fascinate you.

1.) In 7.59 billion billion years the Earth & Moon are very likely to be destroyed by falling into the Sun, just before the Sun reaches the tip of its red giant phase.

2. In 100 trillion years, the universe will continue to expand due to dark energy and normal star formation will end in galaxies. With no free hydrogen to form new stars, all remaining stars slowly exhaust their fuel and die.

3. In 2×10^36 years all of the atoms in the observable universe would have succumbed to proton decay.

4. If protons have not decayed yet, every planet, asteroid & rigid object will instantaneously evaporate into subatomic particles due to quantum tunneling in 10^65 years.

5. In 10^10^120 years the universe will reach its final energy state, even in the presence of a false vacuum.

6. In 10^10^50 years, your consciousness and another universe could come into existence due to a Boltzmann brain appearing in the vacuum of our now dead universe because of spontaneous entropy decrease. But this is temporary.

7. In 10^10^10^120 years, the quantum tunneling of quantum fluctuations in an isolated patch of our now-empty universe could generate new inflationary events, resulting in new Big Bangs & giving birth to new universes. But this is also temporary.

8. Eventually, the multiverse state will succumb to heat death due to asymptotically becoming a superposition of supersymmetric Minkowski & singularity states. The multiverse state (if it exists) will also decay into some lower energy vacua due to de Sitter space & non-supersymmetric Minkowski vacua. Eventually, existence will end.


1. Distant future of the Sun & Earth revisited Klaus-Peter Schroder, Robert C. Smith

2. A Dying Universe: The Long Term Fate & Evolution of Astrophysical ObjectsFred C. Adams, Gregory Laughlin (U. Michigan)3. Search for Proton Decay via p -> e^+ pi^0 & p -> mu^+ pi^0 in a Large Water Cherenkov DetectorThe Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

4. Time without end: Physics and biology in an open universe Freeman J. Dyson

5 – 6. Sinks in the Landscape, Boltzmann Brains, & the Cosmological Constant ProblemAndrei Linde

7. Spontaneous Inflation & the Origin of the Arrow of TimeSean M. Carroll

8. Quantum Mechanics, Spacetime Locality, & Gravity Yasunori Nomura

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *