Mars is the only ideal planet that has Earth-like sustainability and where microbial life
might have existed in the past. Mars has very similar features as Earth and so can be
considered as a habitable planet.

For settling on Mars, scientists and researchers are working day-night to make it
possible. The founder of SpaceX and Tesla, renowned Elon Musk has given this world a
vision for Mars Settlement, which in fact is very realistic and can be made possible, by
making some conditions and factors.

Factors Required for Martian Habitat:

  1. The harmful radiation on Mars is a major concern for the settlement. Human
    life on Mars can be protected from that radiation by using materials rich in
    hydrogen content. These hydrogen-rich materials will help in absorbing solar
    radiation.
  2. Oxygen is the fundamental life-support system for human life. Oxygen is
    present on Mars but in very low content, which is 0.174% of the total
    atmosphere. This oxygen content will not be sufficient for sustaining. So few
    scientific processes are to be conducted such as MOXIE and electrolysis of
    water. These processes will yield enough oxygen.
  3. Water, being an important criterion, is available on Mars in the form of Ice.
    On July 31, 2008, NASA’s Phoenix Mars lander confirmed the presence of
    water ice on Mars. To extract water from Mars, scientists could either dig
    up frozen soil and heat it up in an oven, or zap it with microwave beams.
  4. Protection from dust storms on Mars is also a major hindrance while settling.
    Dust storms on Mars are very occasional and dangerous due to thick soil
    content. These dust storms led to the destruction of the curiosity rover of
    NASA by coating specks of dust on the solar panels of the rover.
  5. Building the Settlement in a Dome shape and using powerful materials can help this.
  6. If materials are not that efficient then, living in the caves or lava tubes on Mars can help this by safeguarding us from the dust storms.
  7. Building the living area and other structures is also an important factor for
    settlement. 3-D printing on Mars using robots can be an option. But the most
    convenient way for the building is to live in the lava tubes or caves present on
    Mars. These are the best methods for the shelter. They can protect us from
    all-natural disasters and radiation on Mars.
  8. The number of Martian settlers and the way of selecting them is very
    important to be considered. Some experts say that at the initial stage 50–100
    settlers will be enough for settlement. The selection process should be on the
    requirements of the best engineers, doctors, technicians, biologists,
    geologists, scientists, and others related to professional backgrounds. This
    combination will help to maintain a perfect livelihood.
  9. The law and jurisdiction on Mars will be quite different from Earth. There will be no
    leader among the settlers. All will work together with harmony and peace. The Martians
    should have a kind and good-natured behavior towards other settlers. They should
    always feel privileged for being Martian. Equality should be encouraged. Sex-Ratio
    should be maintained.
  10. Communication among the martian and the earthlings is another topic to be
    considered. Inter and Intra communication should be done using satellites installed on
    the Martian orbit. Advanced communication technologies should be made possible. GPS
    should be installed in everyone’s cosmic suit.
  11. Entertainment on Mars is also a necessary factor. Amusement parks will be made
    possible inside the habitat, but it will take time. At the initial stage, indoor sports and
    activities will be promoted and encouraged.
  12. The final factor which I want to point out is the shifting of large payload and huge
    population. Currently, the most efficient payload-carrying spaceship is Falcon Heavy. If
    we use that for shifting then we may need more than 5 ships to carry that amount of
    payload which is very uneconomical. In the near future, we may use different liquid
    propellants which might be economical and can help us to shift.

Being able to successfully colonize Mars is necessary to enable Homo Sapiens Sapiens to
spread out across the Milky Way Galaxy at least as far as to other 2.0 piles of earth within 100 light-years of Earth. The nearest other possible 2.0 Earth is 4.22 light-years from Earth, Proxima B, which has been recalculated to possibly be much more Earth-like than previously estimated.

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